, pub-7771400403364887, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0 Describe the centre periphery phenomenon as presented by John Friedmann

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Describe the centre periphery phenomenon as presented by John Friedmann

Love gives a gig M. Klimczuk-Kochańska, A. Klimczuk, The centre-periphery model, [in:] S.N. Romaniuk, M. Thapa, P. (1999).
Marton (editor), Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, Sharm
2019, pages 101-1 101-1 1–8,
heart-device model Chapter

Independent researcher, Bialystok, Poland Chapter

Warsaw University Faculty of Management, Warsaw, Poland
Keywords: centre-periphery model, centripetal and centrifugal forces, regional inequality;
Regional Polarization
Definition and Introduction
Centre-periphery imbalances and regional disparities are the order of the day in several countries 4,444 disciplines have a huge impact on economic and social development
in the world. In sociology, international relations and economics, the concept is crucial
Explain economic exchange. Few countries play a leading role
world trade (sometimes called “the global North”), while most countries
Secondary or even tertiary in world trade (the “global South”). And when we
In discussing global, continental, regional, and national economies, we can 4,444 smaller territorial units (such as sub-regions, provinces, districts or provinces)
salaries are higher than in some less developed areas within the same area of ​​intervention.
These regional inequalities and injustices are the subject of centre-periphery models,
focuses on trends in economic activity, centered around certain pivot points.
It attempts to account for spatial inequalities or imbalances observable at all levels or scales by
Emphasizes the role of horizontal and vertical relationships between entities hierarchically There are
cities and towns in the world. The presence of a core-periphery structure implies that
Socio-economic development is often uneven in space and place.
From such a geographical point of view, the area known as the "Core" leads in all respects
neighborhoods, while others qualify as "peripheral" are social, economic and political
backstage, farms and backstage sources of supply, or - in some cases - even worse
and descending. Moreover, the level of development was negatively correlated with the distance
from the kernel. State economies have gone
through different stages of development
developed the earliest and fastest speed to become the main area of ​​getting rich and
growth poles. Countries and regions with slower progress become or
is still a mediocre device.The main questions raised during the discussions related to the core-periphery model relate to
Disproportionate and asymmetrical relationship and value of results and results
indicators linked to the level of regional development. The words "center" and "core"
is often used as a synonym. The periphery is considered negative and the surrounding areas become
regions that can challenge the core and can even be considered politically demanding 4,444 one-off interventions (e.g. areas with predominantly agricultural structures,
areas poor in natural resources, areas far from major transport routes,
Sparsely populated areas, large business liquidation areas
due to mass unemployment and other social problems). Periphery is related to distance,
Differentiation, dependence on foreign aid and marginalization
and stripped. But at the same time, there is no uniform or standardized development
models to bridge the development gap in underdeveloped regions
developing countries and regions.
Several attempts have therefore been made to identify the factors that lead to inequalities Global development
Emphasis on conflicting relationships between
centers and peripheries, often reduced to a simple dualism of dominant and weak centers
devices. The model has attracted the attention of geographers, area studies specialists,
urban planners, economists, sociologists, practitioners and experts in the field of urban planning
Development studies.Prebisch's manifesto - it describes the concepts as two broad and contrasting domains Class
i.e. the economically developed center and the underdeveloped periphery. This The
terms are related to each other, but are also defined by various internal characteristics, such as salary level,
production structure, export composition and other characteristics are similar.
Prebisch's concept still appears frequently in the literature as
Dependency theory. Prebisch found that productivity gains, wherever they occur,
helps manufacturing hubs more than agriculture and exporting regions
Goods and resources. Prebisch argues that the theories and models derive from
Developed countries (centre) not applied in non-developed countries (periphery)
due to different historical circumstances and experiences (Prebisch 1950).
It is important to note that Prebisch's ideas had an enormous impact on both economic policy and economic policy. There are 4,444 development trends in the world. He pointed out that unequal exchange is
circulates surplus value from the periphery to the center. Prebisch also pointed out
This question has long been neglected, at least in the social sciences, because
Previously used terms and all other variations of the rich-poor dichotomy.John Friedmann's centre-periphery regional development model (1966)
John Friedmann was also interested in the centre-periphery model. he is still developing The 1966
concept emphasizing the role of spatial distance to the nucleus. what he did was
Sometimes interpreted and combined with growth pole theory (focused on input-output
links) by François Perroux (1955) and later works by Albert O. Hirschman (1958)
which describes the "trickle down effect" in disequilibrium theory
development. Moreover, it can be noted that the element of the Friedman model
Output-Based Methods, by Douglass C. North (1955) and parts of Gunnar Myrdal
(1957) The theory of cumulative and circular causation with "diffusion effects" (according to
Development extends from the city to the suburbs and all adjacent areas) and the "backwash effect"
(City development tends to pool resources and manpower)
surrounding areas, which can be reduced).
Friedman's version of the center-periphery model includes answers to why some 4,444 inner city areas are quite prosperous, while others show signs of urban poverty
and poverty, although urban areas often have certain advantages over surrounding rural areas.
Consequently, this model of regional development emphasizes spatially diversified development. He recognizes that the most competitive entities tend to position their production and services asActivities in the most developed regions. The economic center (core) dominates the periphery
areas are not only economic, but also political and cultural. heart,
is generally a metropolitan area, and even that contributes to surrounding development,
At the same time, it is socially and economically subordinate to it. usually center
has a strong potential for innovation (improvement) and growth, forming a geographical shape
Diffusion of innovations (Rogers 1962, 2003). Meanwhile, according to Friedman, 4,444 surrounding areas have low to stagnant growth, and growth momentum can be counted on
is mainly the demand for resources in the central area.
Mention should also be made of the additional division of regions proposed by Friedmann (1966), where
central and peripheral zones are classified as "ascending transition zones" (advanced or early), There are
"downward transformation zones" and "resource frontier zones". The upward transition region is The 4,444 growth regions are distributed in small centers rather than nuclei. Downward transformation
areas characterized by resource depletion, low agricultural productivity or obsolete
Industries. Resource border regions described as newly “settled” areas The
hits the production network for the first time. For example, an inaccessible city center The
can have a counter-current effect with limited investment. The effect is particularly evident
When the city center is close to the newly developed central business district, concentrate
The gap between rich and poor is wide and space is relatively limited.
Friedman's theory is sometimes described as similar to the "three-sector model" (or
"Petty's Law") by Allan Fisher, Colin Clark, Jean Fourastie and Daniel in Economics
Bell (see review by Ehrig and Staroske, 2009). Friedman's version is called "central device".
"Four-Stage Regional Development Model" covers the following stages: pre-industrialization,
Transitional, industrial and post-industrial.
The pre-industrial stage refers to the first sector of the economy (agriculture), which
Economic activity is limited to small areas and small settlements
construction with small units. Some aspects of pre-industrial society were relatively isolated, small units
remains fragmented, with low mobility of economic agents such as the population and traders.
The transition phase is described as an economy increasingly centered on
The heart of capital accumulation and industrial growth. a dominant center emerges The network of
cities has become its growth pole. Increased trading and liquidity at this stage,
But daily labor space remains local due to personal mobility
people are still confined. The periphery is completely subordinate to the political center at this point
and economic benefits.At the industrial stage, manufacturing (secondary industry) as well as 4,444 people were transferred from rural to urban areas for employment. This change then also led to a shift from the use of human labor to mechanization and automation of production. Therefore, the center-periphery model is also used to measure
Literature on the labor market and labor economics. Therefore, the model is also known as "dual
Labor Market Theory” and “Insider-Outsider Theory” (Klimczuk and Klimczuk-Kochańska
2016). In general, both theories assume that the labor market is divided into segments, which are
are distinguished from each other by distinct rule systems, work requirements and different ways
skills. For example, HR policies include (in key departments)
By providing training, salary increases,
promotion, job security. At the same time, the external labor market is dominated by women
and ethnic minorities, providing low income and low status jobs. Moreover, at the industrial stage,
Through the process of economic growth and distribution, other poles of growth emerge. major
Dispersion due to increased production costs related to labor and land
central area. This spread is associated with increased interaction between urban elements
construction of transportation systems and infrastructure.
The fourth stage, the post-industrialization stage, with an increasing demand for labor
Services (tertiary sector). Suppose that this phase is characterized by
Achievement of economic integration and balance. the urban system becomes
is fully integrated and the gap is greatly reduced. economic communication
activities focused on establishing force-related specialization and division of labor The
flows along the transit corridor. According to Friedman, the distribution of economic activity
must be optimal, balanced and stable. It does not mean trade and liquidity
population is expected to decrease. As different fields specialize in specific functions, there are
will be distributed between the regions. Synthetic model predicts periodic motion The population of
inhabitants is mainly caused by age factors: young people studying in big cities, families 4,444 settled in the suburbs, seniors looking for a competitive and calm countryside
Summarize the development potential of a given territory according to Friedman's model
or country determined by the attraction role of regional growth poles, There are 4,444 infrastructure building elements, supporting core areas to provide support to underdeveloped areas. A The advantage of the
model is that the assumptions of this theory also apply to different
spatial scales, from local and regional to national and global.The centre-periphery hierarchy in Immanuel Wallerstein's world system theory (1974)
The concept of center-periphery model is also part of Wallerstein's theory, he proposed
in the 70s explained the emergence and functioning of capitalism, while trying to explain
The phenomenon of globalization. The theory assumes that the world system is a specific space
and flowitems, including in
Certain specific principles.
An essential element of this theory is the centre-periphery hierarchy, in which the contradictions
Interests and inequalities arise from the domination of the strong over the weak
device. On other issues, this theory is very similar to that of Prebisch and Friedman method
In fact, it is often considered the same concept as Prebisch. but in
Wallerstein's theory, center and periphery in matter and
socio-cultural terms. Thus, while dependence theory only shows that a region depends on
on the other hand, here neither will work as well as without the other.
Wallerstein shows that the central zone is innovative and plays an active role in it
International trade, exporting capital, generating high income, having high productivity and
Stable political system. The heart is the exchange of products between websites
monopoly and free market areas, profits flow to the former. The surrounding area has
Lack of innovation, low income and productivity, reliance on capital imports, The
plays little role in international trade and is politically unstable. Therefore, in this method,
On the contrary, the peripheries are dependent on the central region and disadvantaged by unequal terms of trade.
Further, Wallerstein (1974) distinguished what has been interpreted as a
Buffer between center and periphery. Even if the semi-peripheral countries and
regions have the highest mobility and should be promoted to the core The
area is primarily determined by international or governmental intervention. Some of the semi-peripheries were once core areas, while some of the peripheries have progressed. exist
Wallerstein's point of view, peripheral and semi-peripheral states
The comparative advantage of cheap labor will lose the investment it attracts. Labor cost
will increase globally over time due to rural resource depletion
Thomas D Hall et al. (2011) further extended and modified world system theory, e.g.
looks at precapitalist societies. The core-periphery differentiation is concentrated here
different socio-political groups had active exchanges. So there is a lake aroundMarket size, worker mobility and positive externalities. These forces lead to
Cumulative cycle, divergent and asymmetric development patterns
reaches kernel status and another becomes peripheral. The centrifugal force is
Real estate factors such as natural resources, competition and negative externalities. as
Where one of these forces is dominant, there will be profound regional differences. Krugman
(2011) also considered three factors that affect the relationship between centrifugation and centrifugation
centripetal force. These are (1) economies of scale in industrial production, (2) transport
costs, and (3) the demand for manufactured products. Given these forces, it is possible
Conceptualizing the described centripetal governance mechanism of "circular causality" Krugman's
As a situation where employees are initially attracted to a company,
But then employees who are also consumers attract new businesses to the area. Krugman
Argue convincingly that centralized processes are more beneficial than
distributions. This often leads to polarization, or at least a noticeable shift in it
Levels of spatial socioeconomic development. It should be noted that this new school of thought
Taking into account the spatial aspects of socio-economic development. The theory has been extended
touches various fields of study such as urban and regional studies, international trade,
Research for development and industrial organization. Chapter
Spatial inequality in the process of socio-economic development leads to
marginal areas (peripheral areas), mainly rural areas. The periphery is a complex and
Multidimensional concepts. It has a relative characteristic: the identification and classification of a
The area indicated as the peripheral area depends on the accepted standard and the reference point. In general,
Peripheral evaluation is negative, emphasizing delay, dependence,
Marginalization and deprivation. States and territories use various public mechanisms
interventions were carried out under the slogan of the fight for social and territorial cohesion. the consequences of doing so However,
attempts are far from satisfactory.
An overview of selected theories and concepts of regional development allows us to highlight
Various causes of peripherality, although many of the theoretical concepts discussed are related to
This is only indirect. Cumulative causal phenomena lead to simultaneity
The occurrence of negative phenomena in poverty and remote areas is linked to
Interdependence leads to permanent exclusion and marginalization. escape is difficult
Such "path dependency" is almost impossible to achieve without external forceinterference (Magnusson and Ottosson 2009). On the other hand, note that the space
Inequality is a feature of social and economic development and an inevitable phenomenon.
The spatial diversity of socio-economic development, especially in the international context, can
also leads to taking advantage of what is known as the economic laggard or leapfrog
benefits resulting from the omission of specific stages of development (Yap and Rasiah 2016).
Economically backward entities such as countries can avoid unfavorable processes and
focuses on duplicating only tested out-of-the-box solutions without creating issues with
seeks to find these solutions (for example in technology and innovation).
Historically, the core-periphery model has been associated with the following processes
Industrialization and urbanization have deepened the differentiation between central and peripheral areas. 4,444 areas with geographical and transport advantages benefited
industrialized areas have become centers of attraction for economic entities
scale, impose requirements on increasing labor resources, attract external capital,
and effectively compete with the edge for these resources. For this reason, in another
extreme and peripheral zones have been established and most manpower resources have been lost
unattractive for external capital due to monofunctional local structures
Economy. Most rural areas fall into this group, with the exception of those near major urban areas
centers. The heart of the territory has also become a crossroads of economic activities, a source of innovation and
gatherings of innovative creators, sometimes referred to as the "creative class" (Florida
2002, 2017). Exorbitant costs, especially for the introduction of technological innovations, are an obstacle
people were transferred to surrounding areas (Klimczuk and Klimczuk-Kochańska 2015). cost
including financial investment and training of workers actually weakened
Effects of technological progress and the diffusion of knowledge (diffusion or spillover). Insufficient
Endogenous innovation absorption potential (in terms of human and social capital)
also aggravates adverse economic and social consequences in surrounding areas.
A more open discussion of peripheral causes and greater awareness are needed
needs and potential positive responses to related social, economic and political challenges.
The role of global economic organizations such as the G20, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the World Economic Forum (WEF) is also worthwhile
pay attention to this aspect. Most of the participating intergovernmental organizations stated that they
want to reduce global inequality and fight poverty, even if they
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